Meeker ( Minnesota )

County of Meeker information are available about the following places, ordered by kind:

Airport Building Canal Cemetery Church Civil Flat Hospital Lake Locale Park Populated Place Post Office School Stream Swamp Tower

Please find listed in what follows eighty-one statistical data about the County of Meeker compared with those of the Minnesota state and those of the whole USA. Values are grouped by categories:

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Population data

Resident total population estimate (July 1) 2006 = 23,405

Resident population (April 1) 2000 (complete count) = 22,644

Resident total population estimate, net change - April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 = 763 abitanti

Resident total population estimate, percent change - April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 = 3.4%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Geography data

Land area, 2000 (square miles) = 608.54

Persons per square mile, 2000 = 37.20

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Population data by age

Resident population under 5 years of age (July 1) 2006 = 1,468

Resident population under 5 years of age, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 6.3%

Minnesota 6.7%

USA 6.8%

Resident population under 18 years of age (July 1) 2006 = 5,577

Resident population under 18 years of age, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 23.8%

Minnesota 24.3%

USA 24.6%

Resident Population 65 years and over (July 1) 2006 = 3,703

Resident population 65 years and over, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 15.8%

Minnesota 12.1%

USA 12.4%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Population data by sex

Resident population total females, percent (July 1) 2006 = 49.6%

Resident population total females, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 49.6%

Minnesota 50.3%

USA 50.7%

Resident population total males, percent (July 1) 2006 = 50.4%

Resident population total males, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 50.4%

Minnesota 49.7%

USA 49.3%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Miscellanea

Civilian noninstitutionalized population, 5 years and over, with a disability 2000 (sample) = 3,465

Mean travel time to work (minutes), workers age 16+, 2000 = 23 minutes.

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Population data by races

Resident population White alone (July 1) 2006 = 23,075

Resident population White alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 98.6%

Minnesota 89.3%

USA 80.1%

Resident population Black alone (July 1) 2006 = 56

Resident population Black alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 0.2%

Minnesota 4.5%

USA 12.8%

Resident population American Indian and Alaska Native alone (July 1) 2006 = 55

Resident population American Indian and Alaska Native alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 0.2%

Minnesota 1.2%

USA 1.0%

Resident population Asian alone (July 1) 2006 = 137

Resident population Asian alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 0.6%

Minnesota 3.5%

USA 4.4%

Resident population Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone (July 1) 2006 = 0

Resident population Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 0.0%

Minnesota 0.1%

USA 0.2%

Resident population Two or more races (July 1) 2006 = 82

Resident population Two or more races, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 0.4%

Minnesota 1.5%

USA 1.6%

Resident population Hispanic or Latino Origin (July 1) 2006 = 668

Resident population Hispanic or Latino Origin, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 2.9%

Minnesota 3.8%

USA 14.8%

Resident population Not Hispanic, White alone (July 1) 2006 = 22,431

Resident population Not Hispanic, White alone, percent (July 1) 2006 = 95.8%

Resident population Not Hispanic, White alone, percent (July 1) 2006

Meeker 95.8%

Minnesota 85.9%

USA 66.4%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) More population data

Births 2004 = 295

Deaths 2004 = 221

Infant deaths under one year 2004 = 3

Population 5 years and over by residence in 1995 - percent in same house 2000 (sample) = 64.1%

Population 5 years and over by residence in 1995 - percent in same house 2000 (sample)

Meeker 64.1%

Minnesota 57.0%

USA 54.1%

Percent foreign born population 2000 (sample) = 0.8%

Percent foreign born population 2000 (sample)

Meeker 0.8%

Minnesota 5.3%

USA 11.1%

Population 5 years and over, percent speaking language other than English at home 2000 (sample) = 3.9%

Population 5 years and over, percent speaking language other than English at home 2000 (sample)

Meeker 3.9%

Minnesota 8.5%

USA 17.9%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Incomes data (NAICS - North American Industry Classification System)

Personal Income (NAICS) 2005 = Mil.$ 667

Per capita personal income (NAICS) 2005 = $ 28,702

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Housing data

Housing unit estimates as of July 1, 2006 = 10,732

Housing unit estimates - net change, April 1, 2000 (base) to July 1, 2006 = 912

Housing unit estimates - percent change, April 1, 2000 (base) to July 1, 2006 = 9.3%

Housing unit estimates - percent change, April 1, 2000 (base) to July 1, 2006

Meeker 9.3%

Minnesota 10.5%

USA 9.0%

Owner-occupied housing units - percent of total occupied housing units 2000 (complete count) = 81.7%

Owner-occupied housing units - percent of total occupied housing units 2000 (complete count)

Meeker 81.7%

Minnesota 74.6%

USA 66.2%

Median value of specified owner-occupied housing units 2000 (sample) = $ 89,200

Housing units by units in structure - multiple units 2000 (sample) = 11%

Housing units by units in structure - multiple units 2000 (sample)

Meeker 11%

Minnesota 22%

USA 26%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Households data

Households 2000 (complete count) = 8,590

Persons per household 2000 (complete count) = 2.58

Per capita income in 1999 = $ 18,628

Median household income 2004 = $ 45,519

People of all ages in poverty - percent 2004 = 7.3%

People of all ages in poverty - percent 2004

Meeker 7.3%

Minnesota 8.1%

USA 12.7%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Educational attainment

Educational attainment - persons 25 years and over - percent high school graduate or higher 2000 = 81.5%

Educational attainment - persons 25 years and over - percent high school graduate or higher 2000

Meeker 81.5%

Minnesota 87.9%

USA 80.4%

Educational attainment - persons 25 years and over - percent bachelor's degree or higher 2000 = 13.9%

Educational attainment - persons 25 years and over - percent bachelor's degree or higher 2000

Meeker 13.9%

Minnesota 27.4%

USA 24.4%

County of Meeker (Minnesota) Labor and Employment

Civilian labor force 2006 = 12,758

Civilian labor force unemployment 2006 = 634

Civilian labor force unemployment rate 2006 = 5.0%

Civilian labor force unemployment rate 2006

Meeker 5.0%

Minnesota 4.0%

USA 4.6%

Employment in all industries (NAICS) 2005 = 13,284

Employment in all industries (NAICS), net change 2000(SIC)- 2005 = 1,113

Employment in government and government enterprises (NAICS) 2005 = 1,439

Earnings in all industries (NAICS, no code) 2005 (thousands dollars) = $ 335,484

Earnings in all industries (NAICS, no code), average earnings per job 2005 (in thousands dollars) = $ 25,255

Private nonfarm establishments 2005 = 605

Private nonfarm employment for pay period including March 12, 2005 = 6,025

Private nonfarm employment for pay period including March 12, 2005, percent change 2000-2005 = 2.6%

Private nonfarm employment for pay period including March 12, 2005, percent change 2000-2005

Meeker 2.6%

Minnesota 1.5%

USA 2.0%

Nonemployer: total (NAICS 00) establishments, 2005 = 1,739

Accommodation and Food Services: total (NAICS 72) - sales of establishments with payroll 2002 (thousands dollars) = $ 13,573

Total number of firms 2002 = 2,130

Total Black-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Total American Indian-and Alaska Native-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Total Asian-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Total Hispanic-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Total Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Total women-owned firms of 100 or more, percent 2002 = Less than 100 firms: percentage not available

Manufacturing: total (NAICS 31-33) - value of shipments 2002 (thousands dollars) = $ 504,664

Wholesale trade: total (NAICS 42) - sales of establishments with payroll 2002 = $ 134,549

Retail trade: total (NAICS 44-45) - sales of establishments with payroll 2002 = $ 176,498

Retail trade: total (NAICS 44-45) - sales of establishments with payroll per capita 2002 = $ 7,663

New private housing units authorized by building permits - total 2006 (20,000-place universe) = 108

Valuation of new private housing units authorized by building permits 2006 (20,000-place universe) (thousands dollars) = $ 18,095

Land in farms (NAICS) 2002(acres)(not adjusted) = 340,552

Federal Government expenditure - total FY 2004 (thousands dollars) = $ 107,569

Federal Government expenditure per capita FY 2004 = $ 4,621

Airport Empire Valley Airport - L and M Aerodrome - Litchfield Municipal Airport - Lux Strip - Meeker County Memorial Hospital Heliport - Runkes Field - Building Cosmos City Hall - Cosmos City Hall - Cosmos Fire Hall - Cosmos Fire Hall - Cosmos Library - Cosmos Library - Cosmos Police Department - Cosmos Police Department - Darwin City and Township Hall - Darwin City and Township Hall - Dassel Fire Station - Dassel Fire Station - Dassel Museum - Dassel Museum - Dassel Police Department - Dassel Police Department - Dassel Public Library - Dassel Public Library - Depot Museum - Depot Museum - Eden Valley City Hall - Eden Valley City Hall - Eden Valley Fire Department - Eden Valley Fire Department - Eden Valley Police Department - Eden Valley Police Department - Grove City Fire Hall - Grove City Fire Hall - Grove City Library - Grove City Library - Grove City Police Department - Grove City Police Department - Litchfield City Hall - Litchfield City Hall - Litchfield Fire Department - Litchfield Fire Department - Litchfield Police Department - Litchfield Police Department - Litchfield Public Library - Litchfield Public Library - Meeker County Courthouse - Meeker County Courthouse - Meeker County Historical Society Museum - Meeker County Historical Society Museum - Meeker County Sheriff Department - Meeker County Sheriff Department - Watkins Fire Department - Watkins Fire Department - Watkins Police Department - Watkins Police Department - Watkins Village Hall - Watkins Village Hall - Canal County Ditch Number Eighteen - County Ditch Number Eighteen - County Ditch Number Fortyfour - County Ditch Number Fortyone - County Ditch Number Fortysix - County Ditch Number Fortytwo - County Ditch Number Nine - County Ditch Number Ninteen - County Ditch Number Seven - County Ditch Number Seventeen - County Ditch Number Sixteen - County Ditch Number Thirtyone - County Ditch Number Thirtysix - County Ditch Number Twenty - County Ditch Number Twentyeight - County Ditch Number Twentyfive - County Ditch Number Twentysix - County Ditch Number Twentythree - County Ditch Number Twentytwo - Judicial Ditch Number Eighteen - Judicial Ditch Number One - Judicial Ditch Number Seventeen - Judicial Ditch Number Thirteen - Judicial Ditch Number Thirtytwo - Judicial Ditch Number Three - Judicial Ditch Number Twentynine - Judicial Ditch Number Two - Cemetery Bethlehem Cemetery - Burr Oak Cemetery - Calvary Cemetery - Clay Cemetery - Clay Cemetery - Cosmos Cemetery - Dassel Cemetery - Dassel Cemetery - Ellsworth Cemetery - First Lutheran Cemetery - First Lutheran Cemetery - Immanuel Cemetery - Immanuel Cemetery - Lake Arvilla Cemetery - Lake Jennie Cemetery - Lake Jennie Cemetery - Lake Union Cemetery - Manannah Cemetery - Ness Cemetery - Ness Cemetery - New Immanuel Lutheran Cemetery - New Immanuel Lutheran Cemetery - North Kingston Cemetery - Ostmark Cemetery - Ostmark Cemetery - Peace Cemetery - Pioneer County Cemetery - Pioneer County Cemetery - Redeemer Cemetery - Ripley Cemetery - Ripley Cemetery - Riverside Cemetery - Rosendale Cemetery - Rosendale Cemetery - Saint Columban Cemetery - Saint Columban Cemetery - Saint Gertrude Cemetery - Saint Gertrude Cemetery - Saint Johns Cemetery - Saint John`s Cemetery - Saint John`s Cemetery - Saint Peters Cemetery - South Kingston Cemetery - Spring Grove Cemetery - Steelsville Cemetery - Swan Lake Cemetery - Talbot Cemetery - West Kingston Cemetery - Church All Saints Lutheran Church - Anchor Independent Bible Church - Anchor Independent Bible Church - Arndahl Church - Assembly of God Church - Beckville Lutheran Church - Believers Mennonite Church - Church of Christ - Church of Christ - Church of God - Church of God - Church of Our Lady of Manannah - Church of Our Lady of Manannah - Church of Saint Anthony - Church of Saint Anthony - Church of Saint John - Church of Saint John - Church of the Nazarene - Church of the Nazarene - Evangelical Covenant Church - Evangelical Covenant Church - Fellowship Church - First Apostolic Lutheran Church - First Apostolic Lutheran Church - First Baptist Church - First Baptist Church - First Baptist Church - First Baptist Church - First Lutheran Church - First Lutheran Church - First Lutheran Church - First Lutheran Church - First Presbyterian Church - First Presbyterian Church - French Lake Church - Gethsemane Lutheran Church - Gethsemane Lutheran Church - Immanuel Church - Immanuel Lutheran Church - Immanuel Lutheran Church - Kingdom of Jehovahs Witnesses - Kingdom of Jehovahs Witnesses - Kingston Apostolic Church - Kingston Apostolic Church - Lake Jennie Church - Lake Union Church - Litchfield Christian Church - Litchfield Christian Church - Litchfield Seventh Day Adventist Church - Litchfield Seventh Day Adventist Church - Litchfield United Methodist Church - Litchfield United Methodist Church - Ness Church - Ostmark Church - Peace Lutheran Church - Peace Lutheran Church - Pioneer Country Church - Saint Columban Church - Saint Gertrude Church - Saint Johns Church - Saint Matthews Church - Saint Paul`s Evangelical Lutheran Church - Saint Paul`s Evangelical Lutheran Church - Saint Paul`s Lutheran Church - Saint Paul`s Lutheran Church - Saint Peters Church - Saint Phillip`s Church - Saint Phillip`s Church - South Kingston Church - Spring Grove Church - Swan Lake Church - Trinity Episcopal Church - Trinity Episcopal Church - Trinity Lutheran Church - Trinity Lutheran Church - Trinity Lutheran Church - Trinity Lutheran Church - Union Grove Church - United Methodist Church - United Methodist Church - Victory Christian Fellowship - Victory Christian Fellowship - Zion Lutheran Church - Zion Lutheran Church - Civil Grove City - Meeker County - Township of Acton - Township of Cedar Mills - Township of Collinwood - Township of Cosmos - Township of Danielson - Township of Darwin - Township of Dassel - Township of Ellsworth - Township of Forest City - Township of Forest Prairie - Township of Greenleaf - Township of Harvey - Township of Kingston - Township of Litchfield - Township of Manannah - Township of Swede Grove - Township of Union Grove - Flat Tyrone Prairie - Hospital Affiliated Medical Center - Allina Medical Clinic at Litchfield - Allina Medical Clinic at Litchfield - Augustana Lutheran Homes - Cosmos Health Care Center - Cosmos Health Care Center - Dassel Lakeside Nursing Home - Dassel Lakeside Nursing Home - Dassel Medical Center - Dassel Medical Center - Eden Valley Medical Clinic - Eden Valley Medical Clinic - Emmanuel Home - Emmanuel Home - Hilltop Good Samaritan Center - Hilltop Good Samaritan Center - Meeker County Memorial Hospital - Meeker County Memorial Hospital - Watkins Medical Clinic - Watkins Medical Clinic - Lake Atkinson Lake - Beaver Dam Lake - Belle Lake - Belle Lake - Benton Lake - Big Swan Lake - Birch Lake - Butternut Lake - Casey Lake - Cedar Lake - Chicken Lake - Clear Lake - Collins Lake - Collinwood Lake - Coombs Lake - Dahls Lake - Daxton Lake - Dunns Lake - East Lake Ripley - Eighty Acre Lake - Evenson Lake - Fallon Lake - Goose Lake - Grass Lake - Greenleaf Lake - Grove Lake - Half Moon Lake - Hanon Lake - Hanson Lake - Hart Lake - Helga Lake - Hoff Lake - Hoosier Lake - Hope Lake - Hurley Lake - Jewitt Lake - Kalkenbrenner Lake - King Lake - Lake Andrew Nelson - Lake Arvilla - Lake Betsy - Lake Byron - Lake Darwin - Lake Emma - Lake Erie - Lake Francis - Lake Harding - Lake Harold - Lake Jennie - Lake Lydia - Lake Mary - Lake Minnie-Belle - Lake Ripley - Lake Stella - Lake Union - Lake Washington - Little Mud Lake - Little Spring Lake - Little Swan Lake - Little Wolf Lake - Long Lake - Long Lake - Long Lake - Lund Lake - Manuella Lake - Maple Lake - Maynard Lake - Miller Lake - Minnesota Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Mud Lake - Nelson Lake - North Buckley Lake - Peterson Lake - Pigeon Lake - Pigeon Lake - Pipe Lake - Popple Lake - Porter Lake - Powers Lake - Rice Lake - Richardson Lake - Rohrbeck Lake - Round Lake - Sather Lake - School House Lake - Schultz Lake - Scott Lake - Sellards Lake - Sioux Lake - South Buckley Lake - Spencer Lake - Spring Lake - Star Lake - Stevens Lake - Stone Lake - Swan Lake - Thoen Lake - Thompson Lake - Towers Lake - Turtle Lake - West Lake - Whitney Lake - Wilcox Lake - Willie Lake - Wolf Lake - Youngstrom Lake - Locale Clear Creek Campground - Clear Creek Campground - Cosmos (historical) - Cosmos (historical) - Darwin - Darwin - Darwin Winter Park Rest Area - Darwin Winter Park Rest Area - Dassel - Dassel - Eden Valley - Eden Valley - Ellsworth Landing - Grove City - Grove City - Grove City Park Cempground - Grove City Park Cempground - Grove Creek Raceway - Grove Creek Raceway - Kramers Family Resort Campground - Kramers Family Resort Campground - Lake Koronis Regional Park Campground - Lake Koronis Regional Park Campground - Lake Ripley Campground - Lake Ripley Campground - Lakedale Campground - Lakedale Campground - Lakewood Campground - Lakewood Campground - Litchfield - Litchfield - Litchfield Golf Club - Litchfield Golf Club - Meeker County Fairgrounds - Meeker County Fairgrounds - Watkins (historical) - Watkins (historical) - Park Acton Incident Historical Monument - Acton State Monument - Acton State Wildlife Management Area - Anderson Gardens - Anderson Gardens - Becker Park - Central Park - Central Park - Darwin Winter Recreation Park - Eden Valley Baseball Park - Eden Valley Baseball Park - Finnish Memorial County Park - G A R Hall Historical Marker - G A R Hall Historical Marker - Greenleaf State Wildlife Management Area - Grove City Park - Grove City Park - Grove Mill Historic Site - Grove Mill Historic Site - Knapp State Wildlife Management Area - Ladybird Park - Ladybird Park - Madsen State Wildlife Management Area - Manuella County Park - Memorial Park - Memorial Park - Memorial Park - Minnie-Man State Wildlife Management Area - Ness Lutheran Cemetery State Monument - Ness Lutheran Cemetery State Monument - Ness Lutheran Church and Ness Memorial Cemetery Historical Marker - Ness Lutheran Church and Ness Memorial Cemetery Historical Marker - Northside Park - Northside Park - Optimist Baseball Park - Optimist Baseball Park - Pigeon Lake Overlook - Pigeon Lake Overlook - Popular State Wildlife Management Area - Prairie Park - Prairie Park - Shaw Memorial Park - Southside Park - Southside Park - Sportsmen Park - Spring Lake County Park - Wieker State Wildlife Management Area - Populated Place Acton - Beckville - Casey - Cedar Mills - Corvuso - Cosmos - Cosmos Mobile Home Park - Cosmos Mobile Home Park - Crow River - Darwin - Dassel - Eden Valley - Evergreen Mobile Home Park - Evergreen Mobile Home Park - Forest City - Four Jays Mobile Home Park - Four Jays Mobile Home Park - Greenleaf - Grove City - Jennie - Kingston - Lamson - Litchfield - Litchfield Mobile Home Park - Litchfield Mobile Home Park - Manannah - North Side Mobile Home Park - North Side Mobile Home Park - Park Village Mobile Home Park - Park Village Mobile Home Park - Rosendale - Strout - Watkins - Watkins Mobile Home Park - Watkins Mobile Home Park - West View Terrace - West View Terrace - Post Office Acton Post Office (historical) - Casey Post Office (historical) - Casey Post Office (historical) - Cedar Mills Post Office (historical) - Cedar Mills Post Office (historical) - Collinwood Post Office (historical) - Collinwood Post Office (historical) - Corvuso Post Office (historical) - Corvuso Post Office (historical) - Cosmos Post Office - Cosmos Post Office - Crow River Post Office (historical) - Crow River Post Office (historical) - Darwin Post Office - Darwin Post Office - Dassel Post Office - Dassel Post Office - Dickson Post Office (historical) - Dickson Post Office (historical) - Forest City Post Office (historical) - Forest City Post Office (historical) - Forest Prairie Post Office (historical) - Forest Prairie Post Office (historical) - Greenleaf Post Office (historical) - Greenleaf Post Office (historical) - Grove City Post Office - Grove City Post Office - Jennie Post Office (historical) - Jennie Post Office (historical) - Kandiyohi Post Office (historical) - Kandiyohi Post Office (historical) - Kingston Post Office (historical) - Kingston Post Office (historical) - Koronis Post Office (historical) - Koronis Post Office (historical) - Lake Harold Post Office (historical) - Lake Harold Post Office (historical) - Lamson Post Office (historical) - Lamson Post Office (historical) - Litchfield Post Office - Litchfield Post Office - Logering Post Office (historical) - Logering Post Office (historical) - Mananah Post Office (historical) - Mananah Post Office (historical) - Ness Post Office (historical) - Ness Post Office (historical) - New Hope Post Office (historical) - New Hope Post Office (historical) - Odon Post Office (historical) - Odon Post Office (historical) - Rosendale Post Office (historical) - Rosendale Post Office (historical) - Saint Andrew Post Office (historical) - Saint Andrew Post Office (historical) - Strout Post Office (historical) - Strout Post Office (historical) - Swift Lake Post Office (historical) - Swift Lake Post Office (historical) - Sylvan Hill Post Office (historical) - Sylvan Hill Post Office (historical) - Watkins Post Office - Watkins Post Office - School ACGC Elementary School - ACGC Junior Senior High School - Belle Lake School - Big Swan Lake School - Casey School - Center School - Chevere School - Collins District School (historical) - Collinwood School - Eden Valley Elementary School - Eden Valley Elementary School - Eden Valley Watkins High School - Eden Valley Watkins High School - Evenson School - Farley School - Happy Corner School - Hilltop School - Lake Ripley Elementary School - Lake Ripley Elementary School - Lamson School - Litchfield Junior High School - Litchfield Junior High School - Litchfield Senior High School - Litchfield Senior High School - Longfellow School - Manning School - Marshall School - Maynard Lake School - Minnie-Belle School - Peifer School - Pipe Lake School - Pleasant Grove School - Pleasant View School - Porter School - Saint Anthony School - Saint Anthony School - Saint Johns School - Saint Phillips School - School Number 1079 - School Number 1088 - School Number 1089 - School Number 1090 - School Number 1096 - School Number 1103 - School Number 1118 - School Number 1122 - School Number 1130 - Steelsville School - Taylor School - Tyrone School - Wagner School - Watkins Elementary School - Watkins Elementary School - Stream Belle Creek - Collinwood Creek - Eagle Creek - Grove Creek - Jewett Creek - King Creek - Middle Fork Crow River - Silver Creek - Stag Brook - Washington Creek - Swamp Hendrickson Lake - Kelley Lake - Mud Lake - Tower KMXK-FM (Litchfield) - KQIV-AM (Litchfield) .